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Dialysis: types, uses, procedure

Dialysis: types, uses, procedure

 dialysis process

What is Dialysis?

  • The kidneys filter the blood by removing the waste and extra fluid from the body. These waste materials formed by being filtered are sent to the bladder. Where they leave the way of urine.
  • If somewhere, the kidney stops functioning, then the dialysis process is helpful in filtering blood.
  • Dialysis is a process in which all the kidney functions are done using a machine. Such as - filtering the blood, maintaining the balance of electrolytes, etc.

    Uses of Dialysis Process

    When the kidney functions properly, it prevents excess water, waste materials, and other impurities from accumulating in the body. Also, the kidney Regulates the balance of blood pressure and minerals (sodium, phosphorus, calcium, potassium) of the body.
    But when the kidney stops functioning due to some disease or injury, then all the functions of the kidney are done with the help of dialysis. Waste materials (like urea) and minerals will start accumulating in the blood without dialysis. Due to the accumulation of these waste materials, they also damage other healthy organs.

    Dialysis is not a treatment to overcome kidney problems, it works like a support system.


    Types of Dialysis Process

    1. Hemodialysis

    Hemodialysis is the most common type of dialysis procedure. In this process, waste and excess fluid are removed from the blood using a hemodialyzer. In this, the blood is passed through a hemodialyzer machine placed outside the body where it is filtered and sent back to the body.

    2. Peritoneal dialysis

    In this, a catheter is inserted into the peritoneal membrane of the stomach. In this process, a special type of fluid is inserted into the peritoneum with the help of a catheter, this liquid is called dialysate. The dialysate absorbs the waste material from the blood present in the peritoneum.

    There are several different types of peritoneal dialysis:
    • Continuous ambulance peritoneal dialysis/CAPD - This is repeated several times a day with dialysate fluid. This is done at the time of waking the patient and does not require any machine.
    • Automated peritoneal dialysis; APD / Continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis;CCPD - In this, the dialysate is sent through the machine to the stomach and removed. This is usually done at bedtime.
    READ ALSO : What is Nephritis?


    How to Dialysis Process is Performed

    Hemodialysis

    Needed Apparatus includes

    hemodialysis

    Process
    • First, the arm is numb with a numbing cream or spray.
    • Before starting the dialysis process, two needles are placed in the A-V fistula in your arm. an AV fistula is a joint made by surgery of the artery and vein of the arm.
    • By connecting the artery and vein together, the blood vessels become bigger and stronger. This makes it easy to transfer your blood to a dialysis machine and get it back again.
    • Both needles are fitted with long and thin tubes which are attached to the dialysis machine.
    • The needle that is connected to the artery sends blood from the artery to the dialyzer (dialysis machine).
    • The dialyzer consists of a filter membrane and is immersed in the dialysate solution.
    • The blood that comes from the artery is filtered through the filter membrane, which brings the waste material and excess water from the blood into the dialysate solution.
    • The filtered blood is now sent to the vein with the help of another needle.
    • The used dialysate solution moves out of the dialyzer with the help of a pump and a new dialysate solution enters the machine.

    Peritoneal dialysis

    There are many different types of peritoneal dialysis, so we will learn about them all :

    1. Continuous ambulance peritoneal dialysis/CAPD

    Needed Apparatus includes

    peritoneal dialysis

    Process

    • Firstly a thin tube is inserted into it by placing a cut (incision) under the Bellybutton. It takes about a week to heal this lesion. No further procedures are initiated until the wound heals. (The purpose of making an incision in the stomach is that the dialysate solution can be pumped into the stomach)
    • When the catheter is well connected to the abdomen and the wound also heals then the further process is started.
    • The bag of dialysate solution is first connected to the abdominal catheter. Due to which the dialysate solution starts to flow slowly in the peritoneal cavity. Where in a few hours the entire solution is filled in cavity.
    • When all the solution is filled in the cavity, the waste matter (Excess water) from the blood flowing to the other side of the peritoneal membrane is absorbed by the solution.
    • Now the old solution in the cavity is filled into the drainage bag with the help of a drainage tube.
    • After the process is complete all tubes are sealed properly.
    • This procedure is done at least four times in an entire day.
    • After practicing, the patient can do it himself at home.

    2. Automated peritoneal dialysis; APD

    Needed Apparatus includes

    peritoneal dialysis

    Process

    • Both APD and CAPD processes are similar but in APD the machine is used to change the dialysate solution. This is usually done at bedtime.
    • In this, the bag of dialysate solution is attached to the tubes and then this is installed in the APD machine.
    • The rest of the process is similar to CAPD.
    • This process takes about 8 to 10 hours.

    Risk associated with Dialysis Process

    Risk associated with Hemodialysis

    • Decreased blood pressure
    • Infection
    • Muscle cramps
    • Hyperkalemia (increased potassium in blood)
    • Irregular of heartbeat
    • Itching
    • Pericarditis (inflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart)
    • Anxiety

    Risk associated with Peritoneal dialysis

    • Peritonitis (Inflammation in the peritoneum)
    • Increase body weight
    • stomach pain
    • Increased blood sugar (due to dextrose found in dialysate)

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